Trends in Dietary Supplement
Non-vitamin and non-mineral (NVNM) nutritional supplements are a type of CHA used by nearly 25% of US adults with musculoskeletal disorders and include animal and plant products (eg, fish oil, herbal supplements). The determinants of the use of non-vitamin and non-mineral (NVNM) nutritional supplements in adults with fibromyalgia (FMS) are not well understood. The use of vitamin and mineral supplements is believed to be common among the 10 million adults in the United States who have been diagnosed with cancer; however, well-conducted research on this topic is scarce.
The use of supplements makes a significant contribution to the total intake of vitamins and minerals at the population level. higher for vitamin B 12 and E supplements. Therefore, the use of supplements significantly reduces the proportion of the general population with nutritional deficiencies .
Overconsumption – The prevalence of overconsumption in a population is estimated as the percentage of the population with nutrient intakes above the tolerable upper limit. vitamin D. Despite widespread use of supplements, micronutrient malnutrition is still prevalent in high-income countries where diets tend to be high in energy but low in nutrients. In some cases, excessive intake of vitamins and minerals can be harmful or cause unwanted side effects; therefore, maximum levels are needed to ensure its safe use in dietary supplements”.
Federal guidelines, such as the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, recommend meeting nutritional needs primarily through food intake, while limiting the use of vitamins and dietary supplements. These recommendations support the use of nutritional supplements for pregnant and breastfeeding women (eg, iron), women of childbearing age (eg, folic acid), and those 20 years and older (eg, vitamin B12). Multivitamins are the most commonly used dietary supplements, with more than 60% of IWHS women claiming to use them. However, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans found no evidence to recommend the use of multivitamins to prevent chronic disease. An Iowa study found an association between standard multivitamin intake and an increased risk of death; in addition, there is evidence whether supplementation increases the risk of cancer. Increased consumption of nutritional supplements in a representative sample of older U.S. adults (ages 65-84), especially the use of multiple nutritional supplements (90); 36% of respondents regularly use five or more supplements agents or drugs, 15% of the combinations represent potentially harmful interactions.
The use of multiple nutritional supplements (two, three, four or more) increased with age; nearly a quarter of adults 60 and older (24.9%) reported taking four one or more nutritional supplements. Among adults 20 and older, 42.4% did not use, 22.5% used one, 13.8% used two, 7.5% used three, and 13.8% used four or more nutritional supplements in the past 30 days. From 2007 to 2010, 49% (SE, 1%) of adults reported using nutritional supplements in the past 30 days; more common in women than men .
The most common reasons adults reported taking dietary supplements were “improving general health” (45%) and “maintaining health” (33%). The review indicated that the main reasons for using nutritional supplements in adults were to improve or maintain overall health, which may or may not include disease prevention or treatment. There was a significant reversal with age and a higher prevalence of dietary supplement use for “improving general health”, “addition to the diet”, “boosting immunity or preventing colds”, and “to get more energy” (figure).
The three most common dietary supplements used by adults were the same across all age groups (Figure 3). Multivitamin-mineral supplements are the most commonly used dietary supplements for adults of all ages, followed by vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid products. Adults also reported using vitamin B 12 supplements to “boost their energy” (25% overall; 21% for men, 27% for women).
The prevalence of supplementation with MVM, B complex and B vitamins, calcium and/or vitamin D, vitamin E, iron and magnesium was significantly higher in women than in men. Vitamin D supplementation from sources other than MVMM increased from 5.1% to 19% (difference, 14% [95% CI, 12% to 17%], P for trend <0.001), and use of fish oil supplements increased from 1.3% to 12% (difference, 11% [95% CI, 9.1% to 12%], P for trend <0.001) over the study period, while use of a number of other supplements declined. Overall, supplementation remained stable between 1999 and 2012, with 52% of US adults reporting supplement use in 2011-2012 (P for trend = 0.19).
In the period 2007-2010, in the United States (USA), it has been estimated that 23% of dietary supplements were suggested by a healthcare professional. In 2011, Americans spent more than $30 billion on dietary supplements. Our results show that adults often report using supplements to improve or maintain health; however, most of the products were used by personal choice (77%) rather than on the recommendation of a medical practitioner (23%). In the United States, according to the National Health and Nutrition Survey, the rationale for supplement use is related to disease prevention/treatment and dietary supplementation (ref. Bailey, Gahche, and Miller6). MVM products currently on the market, depending on their composition, may provide nutrients in amounts that help older people adhere to dietary recommendations, which is the intended use of the products. Older adults who take vitamin and mineral supplements differ from those who do not in terms of nutrient adequacy and attitudes towards nutrition.